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大学英语四级语法精要

大学英语四级语法精要 Ⅰ动词(时态,语态,用法,省略,一致性等) 1. 时态 2. 语态

1)

可以有两种被动结构的类

型,例如:

He was said to be jealous of her success.

It was said that he was jealous of her success.

能同时适用于上述两个句型的主动词通常都是表示“估计”,“相信”等意义的动词,常见的有 assume,believe,expect,fear,feel,know,presume,report,say,suppose,understand等.

It is supposed that the ship has been sunk.

The ship is supposed to have been sunk.

担当be supposed to 与不定式的一般形式搭配时往往表示不同的意义.例如:

Why are you driving so fast in this area? You are supposed to know the speed to know the speed limit. (你应该晓得速度限制) 2) 双宾语及宾补结构的被动

语态 a)

双宾语结构的被动语态: 双宾语结构变为被动语态时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,

另一个宾语仍然保留在谓语后面,但多数是把间接宾语变为主语.

He was asked a number of questions at the press conference. Two days were allowed them for making the

necessary

preparations. b)

宾补结构的被动语态:

She was called Big Sister by everybody.

The room was always kept clean and tidy. 3. 短语动词 4. 省略 5.

一致

Ⅱ 非谓语动词 Ⅲ 虚拟语气 1. that从居中:

1)

wish, would rather (sooner),

had better:

I wish I were as strong as you. I wish I had paid more attention to our pronunciation.

I wish I remembered the address. I would rather they came tomorrow (you had gone there too).

I had rather (that) you told him than I did. 2)

suggest, order,

demand, propose, command,

request,

desire, insist 等动词后的宾语从

句:

The commander ordered that all civilians (should) be evacuated. He asked that he be given an opportunity to try.

She urged that he write and accept the post. 3)

it is desired, it is suggested, it is requested, it was ordered, it was proposed,

it is necessary, it is important, it has been decided 等结构后的主语从句中.

It was arranged that they leave the following week

It will be better that we meet some other time. 4)

suggestion,

motion,

proposal, order, recommendations, plan, idea等后面的表语从句和

1

同位语从句:

His sole requirement is (was) that thy system be adjusted. 2. 在某些句型中 1)

it is time that

It is time that we went (或should go) to bed.

It is high time we (should) put an end to this controversy. 2)

as if (though) 引起的从句: They talked (are talking) as if they had been friends for years. It seems as if it was (were) spring today.

He acts (acted) as if (though) he were (was) an expert. 3)

以lest, for fear that 和 in case 引起的从句(这时谓语多用 should +动词原形):

He took his raincoat with him lest it should rain.

He put his coat over the child for fear that (或lest) he should catch cold.

I’ll keep a seat for you in case you should need it. 4)

以whatever, whoever, no matter what这类代词或词组引起的从句(这时, 谓语多用may加动词 原形构成):

Whatever defects he may have, he is an honest man.

Come what may, we will go ahead.

不管发生什么情况,

我们都要干下去.

I accept that he is old and frail; be that as it may, he’s still a good politician.

我承认他年老体衰, 然而尽管如此, 它仍是优秀的政治家.

3. 条件句

1) 虚拟条件句主要有下面两

类:

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