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明代山东地区枣强移民考

2011年10月 古代文明 October,2011 第5卷 第4期 The Journal of Ancient Civilizations Vol.5 No.4 [帝制中国]

明代山东地区枣强裔移民考

张金奎

提 要:

在山东东部地区,有很多人自称其祖先是来自河北枣强县的移民,且迁徙时间集中于洪武、永乐年间。金、元之际,确有大批河北冀州一带的百姓因为躲避水患和战乱东迁到山东,但明朝初年,冀州一带是移民重点迁入地区,山东人向河北迁徙才是主流。

明朝中后期,因为生存环境的恶化,冀州一带百姓大量东迁。为避免被政府强制遣返,他们不约而同地宣称是明初移民的后裔。这一权宜之计,随着时间的推移以及冀州一带经济、社会形势的变化,通过口耳相传,逐渐固化为枣强人,并随着清朝中叶出现的编撰谱牒之风,进入家史,凝固为共同的历史记忆。

关键词:枣强 移民 山东

Abstract:

In the east part of Shandong Province,many people claim that their ancestors were

immigrants who from Zaoqiang County, and the migration time concentrates in Hongwu, Yongle period.During the Jin and Yuan Dynasty, because of flood and war,there was indeed a large number of common people lived in jizhou area moved eastward to Shandong province.But in the early Ming Dynasty,Jizhou was the immigration key moved into the area.The mainstream was that the native of Shandong Province moved to Hebei area.

In the late Ming Dynasty, because of the deterioration of living environment,a lot of people around Jizhou Eastward.In order to avoid forced repatriation by the government,they all claimed to be descendants of immigrants in the early Ming dynasty.This expedient, and as time goes along Jizhou economic and social situation's change,through word of

mouth,gradually solidified as Zaoqiang people,and entered the family history in the context of Compilation genealogy atmosphere appeared in the mid-Qing Dynasty,and then coagulated for the common historical memory.

Key words: Zaoqiang County immigrants Shandong Province

明初,为解决因长期战乱等原因造成的人口地区性失衡,政府曾有组织的进行过多次大规模的人 1

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