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Comparative analysis of the fatty acid and sterol profiles of widely Mediterranean crustacean

FoodChemistry122(2010)

Comparative analysis of the fatty acid and sterol profiles of widely  Mediterranean crustacean

292–299

ContentslistsavailableatScienceDirect

FoodChemistry

journalhomepage:http://www.51wendang.com/loca

Comparative analysis of the fatty acid and sterol profiles of widely  Mediterranean crustacean

te/foodchem

AnalyticalMethods

Comparativeanalysisofthefattyacidandsterolpro lesofwidelyconsumedMediterraneancrustaceanspecies

KaterinaTsapea,VassiliaJ.Sinanogloub,So aMiniadis-Meimarogloua,*

ab

FoodChemistryLaboratory,DepartmentofChemistry,UniversityofAthens,PanepistimioupolisZographou,15701Athens,GreeceLaboratoryofFoodAnalysis,DepartmentofFoodTechnology,TechnologicalEducationalInstitutionofAthens,Greece

articleinfoabstract

ComparativeanalysisofFA,NLandsterolpro lesintheNephropsnorvegicus(langoustine),Palinurusvul-garis(lobster)andPenaeuskerathurus(shrimp)muscleandcephalothoraxshowedthatC16:0,C16:1x-7,C18:0,C18:1x-9,C20:4x-6,EPAandDHAwerefoundtobetheirmajorFA.HighestEPAoccurredinlan-goustinemuscleTL,DHAinbothshrimptissuesTLwhileC20:4x-6inlobstermuscleandcephalothoraxTL.MuscleandcephalothoraxNLconsistedmainlyofsterols(42.5–54.4%and13.7–43.1%)andtriacylgly-cerols(35.4–45.8%and44.6–59.4%).Cholesterolwasthemajorsterol(70.90–98.58%and97.10–98.31%oftotalsterolsinmuscleandcephalothoraxrespectively)followedbyavenasterol(0.18–20.32%and0.07–0.70%)andb-sitosterol(0.29–7.30%and0.23–0.75%).Lowerconcentrationsofbrassicasterol,stigmas-terol,D7-stigmasterol,campesterolandcampestanolwerealsofound.Theexaminedcrustaceansmuscle(ediblepart)wasfoundtobeagoodx-3PUFAsourcefortheconsumers,whilethecephalothorax(whichisusuallydiscarded)couldbeusedeffectivelyasasourceforx-3PUFAproduction.

Ó2010ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.

Articlehistory:

Received10February2009

Receivedinrevisedform26January2010Accepted9February2010

Keywords:CrustaceansNeutrallipidsPUFAx-3/x-6

TriacylglycerolsCholesterol

1.Introduction

Marinelipidsandespeciallythex-3polyunsaturatedfattyacids(x-3PUFA)suchaseicosapentaenoicacid(EPA,20:5x-3)anddocosahexaenoicacid(DHA,22:6x-3)arebelievedbeprotectiveofhumanhealthinmanyways.Theconsumptionofx-3polyun-saturatedfattyacids(PUFA)reducestheriskofcoronaryheartdis-easeandcancer,hasbothanti-athrogenicandanti-thromboticeffectsaswellasaroleinthecontrolofrheumatoidarthritisandhypertension.Italsoreducestheriskofdiabetesandpreventscar-diacarrhythmias(Mahaffey,2004;Schmidt,2003;Sidhu,2003;Simopoulos,2001).PUFAappeartoplayausefulroleinthedevel-opmentofnervous(brain),photoreception(vision),andreproduc-tivesystems(Horrocks&Yeo,1999).

Inhumans,a-linolenicacidcanbeelongatedanddesaturatedtoalimitedextenttoEPAandDHA.Alternatively,thesePUFAaremainlyacquiredfromseafoodthus,humansobtaintheprincipalpartofEPAandDHAbyconsuming shandaquaticinvertebratessuchasmolluscsandcrustaceans(Schmidt,Arnesen,deCaterina,Rasmussen,&Kristensen,2005).Cholesterolisthemostabundant

Abbreviations:AA,arachidonicacid(C20:4x-6);DHA,docosahexaenoicacid(C22:6x-3);EPA,eicosapentaenoicacid(C20:5x-3);MUFA,monounsaturatedfattyacids;PUFA,polyunsaturatedfattyacids;SFA,saturatedfattyacids;FA,fattyacid(s);TAG,triacylglycerol(s);TL,totallipids.

*Correspondingauthor.Tel.:+302107274486;fax:+302103624870.E-mailaddress:miniadou@chem.uoa.gr(S.Miniadis-Meimaroglou).0308-8146/$-seefrontmatterÓ2010ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.02.019

sterolintheadvancedinvertebrates.Althoughcholesterolisessen-tialformembranestructureaswellashormoneandsteroidbio-synthesis,anexcessconcentrationinplasmaisconsideredtoplayakeyroleintheheart-andartery-relateddisease(Kannel,1995),makingitnecessarytomonitorcholesterolcontentinfood.Crustaceanssuchasshrimp,langoustineandlobsterrepresentsomeofthewidelyconsumedspeciesoftheMediterraneanandcompriseanimportantsourceofnutrientsinthehumandiet(Chapelle,1977;Sriket,Benjakul,Visessanguan,&Kijroongrojana,2007).

Thepresentstudyfocusedonthecomparativeanalysisoftotalandneutrallipidfattyacids,theneutrallipidscompositionaswellasthesterolcomposition(sincedataconcerningsterolcomposi-tionofcrustaceansareverylimited)inthemuscleandcephalotho-raxoftheNephropsnorvegicus,PalinurusvulgarisandPenaeuskerathurus,themostpopularcrustaceanspeciesoftheMediterra-neandiet.

2.Materialsandmethods2.1.Reagentsandstandards

Thelipidstandardsused(purity>98%)werecholesterol,ave-nasterol,b-sitosterol,brassicasterol,campesterol,campestanol,stigmasterol,D7-stigmasterol,trioleinandtheywerepurchasedfromtheSigmaChemicalCo.(Sigma–AldrichCompany,St.Louis,

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